**44.1****
****One-Way ANOVA** (.NET, C#, CSharp, VB, Visual Basic, F#)

Class **OneWayAnova** computes and summarizes
a traditional one-way (single factor) analysis of variance.

**Creating One-Way ANOVA Objects**

A **OneWayAnova**
instance is constructed from numeric data organized into different groups.
The groups need not contain the same number of observations. For example,
this code constructs a **OneWayAnova**
from an array of **DoubleVector** objects.
Each vector in the array contains data for a single group:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

var data = new DoubleVector[5];

data[0] = new DoubleVector( "[24 15 21 27 33 23]" );

data[1] = new DoubleVector( "[14 7 12 17 14 16]" );

data[2] = new DoubleVector( "[11 9 7 13 12 18]" );

data[3] = new DoubleVector( "[7 7 4 7 12 18]" );

data[4] = new DoubleVector( "[19 24 19 15 10 20]" );

var anova = new OneWayAnova( data );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim Data As New DoubleVector(5)

Data(0) = New DoubleVector("[24 15 21 27 33 23]")

Data(1) = New DoubleVector("[14 7 12 17 14 16]")

Data(2) = New DoubleVector("[11 9 7 13 12 18]")

Data(3) = New DoubleVector("[7 7 4 7 12 18]")

Data(4) = New DoubleVector("[19 24 19 15 10 20]")

Dim Anova As New OneWayAnova(Data)

This code constructs a **OneWayAnova**
from a data frame df:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

var anova = new OneWayAnova( df, 1, 3 );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim Anova As New OneWayAnova(DF, 1, 3)

Two column indices are also provided: a *group* column and a *data*
column. A **Factor** is constructed from the
group column using the **DataFrame**
method GetFactor(), which creates a sorted
array of the unique values. The specified data column must be of type
**DFNumericColumn**.

Lastly, you can also construct a **OneWayAnova**
from a **DoubleMatrix**:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

var data = new DoubleMatrix( "6 x 5 [ 24 14 11 7 19

15 7 9 7 24

21 12 7 7 19

27 17 13 12 15

33 14 12 12 10

23 16 18 18 20 ]" );

var anova = new OneWayAnova( data );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim Data As New DoubleMatrix("6 x 5 [ 24 14 11 7 19

15 7 9 7 24

21 12 7 7 19

27 17 13 12 15

33 14 12 12 10

23 16 18 18 20 ]")

Dim Anova As New OneWayAnova(Data)

Each column in the given matrix contains the data for
a group. If your groups have different numbers of observations, you must
pad the columns with Double.NaN values until
they are all the same length, because a **DoubleMatrix**
must be rectangular. Alternatively, use one of the other constructors
described above.

Once you've constructed a **OneWayAnova**,
you can display the complete ANOVA table:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

Console.WriteLine( anova );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Console.WriteLine(Anova)

For example:

Source Deg of Freedom Sum Of Sq Mean Sq F P

Between groups 4 803.0000 200.7500 9.0076 0.0001

Within groups 25 557.1667 22.2867 . .

Total 29 1360.1667 46.9023 . .

Class **OneWayAnovaTable** is provided
for summarizing the information in a traditional one-way ANOVA table.
Class **OneWayAnovaTable** derives
from **DataFrame**. An instance of
**OneWayAnovaTable** can be obtained
from a **OneWayAnova** object using
the AnovaTable property. For example:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

OneWayAnovaTable myTable = anova.AnovaTable;

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim MyTable As OneWayAnovaTable = Anova.AnovaTable

Class **OneWayAnovaTable**
provides the following read-only properties for accessing individual
elements in the ANOVA table:

● DegreesOfFreedomBetween gets the between-groups degrees of freedom.

● DegreesOfFreedomWithin gets the within-groups degrees of freedom.

● DegreesOfFreedomTotal gets the total degrees of freedom.

● SumOfSquaresBetween gets the between-groups sum of squares.

● SumOfSquaresWithin gets the within-groups sum of squares.

● SumOfSquaresTotal gets the total sum of squares.

● MeanSquareBetween gets the between-groups mean square. The between-groups mean square is the between-groups sum of squares divided by the between-groups degrees of freedom.

● MeanSquareWithin gets the within-group mean square. The within-groups mean square is the within-group sum of squares divided by the within-group degrees of freedom.

● MeanSquareTotal gets the total mean square. The total mean square is the total sum of squares divided by the total degrees of freedom.

● FStatistic gets the F statistic.

● FStatisticPValue gets the p-value for the F statistic.

**Grand Mean, Group Means, and Group Sizes**

Class **OneWayAnova**
provides properties and methods for retrieving the grand mean, group means, and group sizes:

● GrandMean gets the grand mean of the data. The grand mean is the mean of all of the data.

● GroupMeans gets a vector of group means.

● GroupSizes gets an array of group sizes.

● GroupNames gets an array of group names. If the
anova was constructed from a data frame using a grouping column, the
group names are the sorted, unique **Factor**
levels created from the column values. If the anova object was constructed
from a matrix or an array of vectors, the group names are simply Group_0, Group_1...Group_n.

● GetGroupMean() returns the mean for a specified group, identified either by group name or group number (a zero-based index into the GroupMeans vector).

● GetGroupSize() returns the mean for a specified group, identified either by group name or group number (a zero-based index into the GroupSizes array).

For example, if a **OneWayAnova**
is constructed from a matrix, this code returns the mean for the group
in the third column of the matrix:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

double maleMean = anova.GetGroupMean( 2 );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim MaleMean As Double = Anova.GetGroupMean(2)

If a **OneWayAnova**
is constructed from a data frame using a grouping column with values
male and female,
this code returns the mean for the male
group:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

double maleMean = anova.GetGroupMean( "male" );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim MaleMean As Double = Anova.GetGroupMean("male")

**Critical Value of the F Statistic**

Class **OneWayAnova**
provides the convenience function FStatisticCriticalValue()
which computes the critical value for the ANOVA F statistic at a
given significance level. Thus:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

double alpha = 0.05;

double critVal = anova.FStatisticCriticalValue( alpha );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Dim Alpha As Double = 0.05

Dim CritVal As Double = Anova.FStatisticCriticalValue(Alpha)

**Updating One-Way ANOVA Objects**

Method SetData() updates
an entire analysis of variance object with new data. As with the class
constructors (see above), you can supply data as an array of group vectors,
a matrix, or as a data frame. For instance, this code updates an ANOVA
with data from **DataFrame** df, using column 2
as the group column and column 5 as the
data column:

Code Example – C# ANOVA

anova.SetData( df, 2, 5 );

Code Example – VB ANOVA

Anova.SetData(DF, 2, 5)